What is Diabetes?

Doctor: Dr. Sabahat Amjad


Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose. High blood sugar is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and may lead to serious damage to body systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are mandatory to prevent serious complications caused by this disease.


Managing and preventing diabetes involves several precautions:

  • Healthy Diet: Consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins helps regulate blood sugar levels.
  • Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity and help control blood glucose levels.
  • Regular Monitoring: Regularly checking blood sugar levels can help manage diabetes effectively.
  • Medication Adherence: Taking prescribed medications or insulin as directed by a healthcare provider is crucial.
  • Regular Medical Check-ups: Routine visits to a healthcare provider for monitoring and managing diabetes-related complications.


Common symptoms of diabetes include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Extreme hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet


Treatment for diabetes typically involves:

  • Lifestyle Changes: A healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management are foundational in managing diabetes.
  • Medications: Oral medications or insulin therapy may be prescribed to help control blood sugar levels.
  • Monitoring: Regular blood sugar monitoring is essential to track and manage glucose levels effectively.
  • Education: Diabetes education programs can help patients understand their condition and how to manage it.
  • Regular Check-ups: Ongoing medical supervision is necessary to monitor for potential complications and adjust treatment as needed.


Diabetes can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Genetics: A family history of diabetes can increase the risk of developing the disease.
  • Autoimmune Response: In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
  • Insulin Resistance: In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes resistant to insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Poor diet, physical inactivity, and obesity are significant risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Hormonal Changes: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and hormonal changes during pregnancy can increase the risk of diabetes.